Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Popular and Scholarly Works On Matthew 27:52-53

For the last couple of years there has been a debate among Evangelicals about how to interpret Matthew 27:52-53 and if denying the straight forward historical literal interpretation is denying inerrancy as defined by the Chicago Statement of Inerrancy of 1978(aka ICBI).  Respectfully, some key figures within the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) make such a claim. 

Curious as to what different published works have to say on the matter I did some research. I have compiled scholarly and popular works published by believers and non-believers that range from viewing the passage as historical, but that this is a hermeneutical issue to those who say the passage is not historical at all.   Most are contemporary, but some are not.  The individuals that I am pretty sure are Evangelical I put a (E) next too [1] or if they signed the ICBI statement of inerrancy I put a (ICBI) by their respective name.  Moreover, if their role in the publication was being a editor (i.e. General Editor)[2] or are affiliated with the SBC I indicated so. Finally,  if they published more than once on Matthew 27:52-53 in some way I indicated the number of times  in parentheses.   

Historical.  Hermeneutical issue and not an inerrancy one.
J.P. Moreland (E) (ICBI)
Edwin Yamaguchi (E) (ICBI)
Heath Thomas (E) (SBC)
Gary Habermas (E)
W. David Beck (E)
Paul Copan (E)
Historical, but difficult. 
Curtis Mitch
Edward Sri
Mary Healy (edited)
Peter Williamson(edited)
Charles Spurgeon (E)
Henry Barclay Swete (E
Etherlbert William Bullinger (E)
John Calvin (E)
Craig Blomberg(E)
J. Vernon McKee (E)
Richard B. Gardner (E)
James Montgomery Boice (E) (ICBI) 
Richard Charles Henry Lenski (E)
David L. Turner (E)
D.A. Carson (E) (ICBI) (wrote this commentary)
Neville Robert Bartle
Johann Peter Lange (E)
James Morison (E)
Frank E. Gaebelein (edited) (E) (ICBI)
Historical, but difficult passage and many scholars think it is not historical.
John A.T. Robinson (E)
Grant R. Osborne (E)
Clinton E Arnold (edited) (E)
Mark Randall Jackson (E) (SBC)
Historical with eschatological emphasis.
David Garland(E)
Stewart Custer (E)
Larry Chouinard (E)
Warren Carter
Richard B. Gardner (E)
Craig Kenner (E) (2)
James W. Bass (E)
John F. Walvoord (E)
Eschatological emphasis.  Not clear on historical conclusion.
Ronald Troxel
Douglas R.A. Hare(E)
Robert Gundry (2)
William Burt Pope (E)
Counterbalanced on apocalyptic vs. historical interpretation.
N.T. Wright(E)(2)
Hank Hanagraff (E) (4 times on his live national radio show)  
Michael Licona (E)
Frank Turek (E)
Bias material used.
Gerd Theissan
Annete Merz

Possibly historical, but if not it is of little consequence.
David Smith
Compares other apocalyptic verses to Matthew 27.  Silent on historical question.
Bruce Metzger(edited) (E)
Micheal Coogan (edited)
Bo Reicke (edited)
Tim McLay
Jerome Quinn
William Wacker
Karl Heinz Neufeld
Clyde W. Brockett
Clifford Davidson
W.D. White
Probably not historical.
Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer (E) (Old)
Micheal Green(E)
John Stott (editor) (E)
Donald Hagner
Bruce Metzger (edited) (E)
Leon Morris (E)
D.A. Carson (edited) (E) (ICBI)
William Lane Craig (E)
Paul Copan (edited) (E)
John Noland (E)
Raymond Brown
Charles H. Talbert (E)
Michael F. Bird (E)
Stephen C. Barton
Cannot tell if it is historical through a sober historical lens.
D.A. Carson (edited) (E) (ICBI)
R.T. France (contributor and edited)(2)
J.A. Motyer (edited)
G.J. Wenham (edited)
Leon Morris (edited) (E)
Probably not historical.  Use of possible Gnostic sources.
David Wenhem
Andrias G. Van Aarde
Probably not historical.  Interpolation
Craig Evans (E) (3)
Robert Stewart (edited) (E) (SBC)
Not historical. Apocalyptic language.
David Senior
Hugh T. Kerr
Robert J. Miller
John Dominic Crossan (2) 
Marcus Borg
David Hill
David C. Sim
Not historical at all
Kenneth Waters
Dale C. Allison
WRF Browning
Serge Wuthrich
James G. Crossley
Gilbert T. Sadler
Church Fathers Divided
M. dr. Jonge
Note: I strive to keep 1 Tim 5:1 and Titus 2:6 in mind even when doing research and putting out there what I find academically. Respectfully, I expect the same even from those who are older (Titus 2:2, 1 Tim 5:1).



-Curtis Mitch and Edward Sri, The Gospel of Matthew, Catholic Commentary on Sacred Scripture (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010), 362. Edited by Mary Healy  Peter Williamson

Kenneth, L. Waters,Sr. "Matthew 27:52-53 as Apocalyptic Apostrophe: Temporal-Spatial Collapse in the Gospel of Matthew." Journal of Biblical Literature 122, no. 3 (2003): 489-515

-Senior, Donald (2011-12-01). The Gospel of Matthew. Interpreting Biblical Texts Series (p. 169). Abingdon Press. Kindle Edition

-Allison, Dale C. Resurrecting Jesus. (New York: T & T Clark, 2005), 307.

-Troxel, Ronald L. "Matt 27.51-4 Reconsidered: Its Role in the Passion Narrative, Meaning and Origin." New Testament Studies 48, no. 1 (2002): 30-47

-The Harvard Theological Review , Vol. 79, No. 1/3, Christians among Jews and Gentiles: Essays in Honor of Krister Stendahl on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday (Jan. - Jul., 1986), pp. 74

- Hugh T. Kerr. “The Christ-Life as Mythic and Psychic Symbol.” Numen , Vol. 9, Fasc. 2 (Sep., 1962), pp. 145, footnote 7.

- Michael Downey, The New Dictionary of Catholic Spirituality, electronic ed. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000), 695.

-Miller, Robert J. The Complete Gospels. (Santa Rosa: Polegridge Press, 1994), 112.

- Borg, Marcus J, and John Dominic Crossan. The Lase Week. (New York: Harper Collins, 2006), 176. 

- Theissen, Gerd, and Annette Metz. The Historical Jesus. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996) 441-453

- "Descent into Hell." In The Oxford Companion to the Bible. , edited by Bruce M. Metzger, Michael D. Coogan, Bo Reicke. Oxford Biblical Studies Online, http://www.oxfordbiblicalstudies.com/article/opr/t120/e0185 (accessed May-2013).

-"resurrection of Jesus." In A Dictionary of the Bible. , edited by W. R. F. Browning. Oxford Biblical Studies Online, http://www.oxfordbiblicalstudies.com/article/opr/t94/e1617 (accessed 11-May-2013).

-Tim McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research (Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 2003), 165.

bid, p. 168-69.

-Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. (London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1977) 356.

-Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. (London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1977) 354, third paragraph, third sentence.

-Jerome Quinn and William Wacker, The First and Second Letters to Timothy: a New Translation with Notes and Commentary, The Eerdmans Critical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2000), 421.

-Amy Newman, The Death of Judaism in German Protestant Thought from Luther to Hegel, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), 455-484 Published by: Oxford University Press  Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.mbts.edu/stable/1465125 (accessed 09/07/2013)

-Wenham, David. "The resurrection narratives in Matthew's Gospel." Tyndale Bulletin 24, (January 1, 1973): 21-54. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed September 8, 2013) All of this can be found on page 21. 

- van Aarde, Andries,G. "Regeneration and Resurrection in Matthew - Peasants in Campo Hearing Time Signals from Scribes." Hervormde Teologiese Studies 67, no. 3 (2011): 1-7, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1282169497?accountid=130527. (Accessed 9/9/2013)

-Wüthrich, Serge. "Naître De Mourir: La Mort De Jésus Dans l'Évangile De Matthieu (Mt 27.51-56)." New Testament Studies 56, no. 3 (07, 2010): 313-25, http://search.proquest.com/docview/347034656?accountid=130527. 

-John Kenneth Riches and David C. Sim, The Gospel of Matthew in Its Roman Imperial Context, vol. 276, Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series (London; New York: T&T Clark International, 2005), 126.

-Ibid, 105–106; David Sims also believes that Matthew does concentrate on eschatological matters in his gospel. Sim, David C. "Matthew's use of Mark: Did Matthew Intend to Supplement Or to Replace His Primary Source?" New Testament Studies 57, no. 2 (04, 2011): 176-92, http://search.proquest.com/docview/878475430?accountid=130527. P.181 (Accessed 9/9/2013)

-Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2, ed. William Stewart, trans. Peter Christie, Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1884), 276.

- C. H. Spurgeon, The Gospel of the Kingdom: a Commentary on the Book of Matthew (London: Passmore and Alabaster, 1893), 251.

-Henry Barclay Swete, The Apostles’ Creed: Its Relation to Primitive Christianity, 3d ed. (Cambridge: University Press, 1894), 9.

- Ethelbert William Bullinger, Figures of Speech Used in the Bible (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1898), 707;

- Selby Vernon McCasland. “The Origin of the Lord's Day”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 49, No. 1 (1930), pp. 65-66

-Licona, Micheal R. The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiogrphical Approach.. (Dowers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2010), 548-553.

-A. T. Robertson, Commentary on the Gospel According to Matthew (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1911), 276.  Around the same time Robertson comments on this passage, in 1914 Andrew Sloman points out that, “St Matthew alone mentions the earthquake and the resurrection of the Saints” though he takes it to be a literal event that took place after Jesus’ death. A. Sloman, Brooke Foss Westcott, and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The Gospel According to St Matthew: Being the Greek Text, Rev. and repr. with additional notes., Classic Commentaries on the Greek New Testament (London: Macmillan, 1912), 138.

-A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1933), Mt 27:52.

- Green, Micheal. The Message Of Matthew. Edited by John R.W. Stott. (Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, 2000), 302-303.

- Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 14–28, vol. 33B, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1998), 851.

- Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 14–28, vol. 33B, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1998), title page.

- N. T. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, Christian Origins and the Question of God (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2003), 636.

- Tom Wright, Matthew for Everyone, Part 2: Chapters 16-28 (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2004), 193.

- Craig L. Blomberg, Making Sense of the New Testament: Three Crucial Questions (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2004), 121-22.

- Southeastern Theological Review  3/1 (Summer 2012) 71–98.  Blomberg’s comments can be found on page 96 last paragraph within his comments.

- David E. Garland, Reading Matthew: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel, Reading the New Testament Series (Macon, GA: Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 2001), 265.

-Gurtner, Daniel M. "The Veil of the Temple in History and Legend." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 49, no. 1 (2006): 97-114

- Leon Morris, The Gospel According to Matthew, The Pillar New Testament Commentary, edited by D.A.Carson(Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: W.B. Eerdmans; Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), 724-26.

- New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, ed. D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer and G. J. Wenham, 4th ed. (Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994), Mt 27:45–56.

- Craig, William Lane. "Concluding Reflections." In Will The Real Jesus Please Stand Up?, edited by Paul Copan, 164-166. Grand Rapids : Baker, 2000.

- The Resurrection of Jesus: John Dominic Crossan and N. T. Wright in Dialogue, ed. Robert B. Stewart (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2006), p.56 footnote 30.

- Craig A. Evans. Jesus and the Ossuaries: What Burial Practices Reveal about the Beginning of Christianity (Kindle Locations 257-260 or pages 15-16). Kindle Edition. 2003

- Evans, Craig A. (2012-02-06). Matthew (New Cambridge Bible Commentary) (Kindle Locations 11802-11830). (Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition)Matthew 27:52-53

-Osborne, Grant R. "Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament." Edited by Clinton E. Arnold. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010. 1044.

- McGee, J. Vernon. Thru The Bible Commentary: Matthew Chapters 14-28. (Nashville : Thomas Nelson, 1995) 189.

- Nolland John, “Preface,” The Gospel of Matthew: a Commentary on the Greek Text, New International Greek Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI; Carlisle: W.B. Eerdmans; Paternoster Press, 2005), 1204.

-David E. Garland, Reading Matthew: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel, Reading the New Testament Series (Macon, GA: Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 2001), 264.

-Stewart Custer, The Gospel of the King : a Commentary on Matthew (Greenville, S.C.: BJU Press, 2005), 400.

- Larry Chouinard, Matthew, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin, MO: College Press, 1997).

- Douglas R. A. Hare, Matthew, Interpretation, a Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Louisville, KY: John Knox Press, 1993), 324.

- Craig S. Keener, Matthew, vol. 1, The IVP New Testament Commentary Series (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1997). Matthew 27:50-53

- Warren Carter, Matthew and the Margins: a Sociopolitical and Religious Reading, vol. 204, Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000), 536.

- Richard B. Gardner, Matthew, Believers Church Bible Commentary (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1991), 393.

-Robert H. Smith, Matthew, Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Publishing House, 1989), 327.

-James Montgomery Boice, The Gospel of Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001), 626.

-R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. Matthew’s Gospel (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Publishing House, 1961), 1129.

-David L. Turner, Matthew, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008), 670.

-Gundry, Robert H. Matthew: A Commentary on His Literary and Theological Art. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), 575.

-William Lane Craig, Gerd Lüdemann, et al., Jesus’ Resurrection: Fact or Figment?: a Debate Between William Lane Craig & Gerd Lüdemann (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 107.

- Gerald L. Borchert, John 12–21, vol. 25B, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2002), 251–252.

- James T. Bretzke, Consecrated Phrases: a Latin Theological Dictionary: Latin Expressions Commonly Found in Theological Writings (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1998).

- http://www.equip.org/category/radio/missouri/page/4/   (Information accessed 10/10/2013) I counted 158 stations, but put 150 plus in case there is some fluctuation in the number as stations are added or taken off.

- Carson, D.A. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan , 1995) 581. (Frank E. Gaebelein: General Editor)

- Charles H. Talbert, Matthew, Paideia Commentaries on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: (Baker Academic, 2010), 307.

-Brown, Raymond E. The Death of the Messiah . (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994),1120-1140.

-France, R.T. Matthew: A Introduction and Commentary . Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. (Downers Grove: Intervarsity , 1985) 406-407. General editor: Leon Morris.

http://www.equip.org/audio/questions-and-answers-with-hank-673/  (accessed Dec 2013)

- http://www.equip.org/audio/questions-and-answers-with-hank-735/  (accessed Dec 2013)

- http://www.equip.org/audio/questions-and-answers-with-hank-780/ (accessed Dec 2013)

- http://www.equip.org/audio/johns-writings-qa/ (accessed Jan 2014)

-Bird, Michael F., and James G. Crossley. How Did Christianity Begin?: A Believer and Non-Believer Examine the Evidence. London; Peabody, MA: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 2008. 55-56(Crossley's position), 69 footnote 30 (Bird's position)

-Barton, Stephen C., ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Cambridge Companions Online. Web. 07 February 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521807662

-Karl Heinz Neufeld "Descent into Hell." Encyclopedia of Christian Theology. First Edition. Ed. JEAN-YVES LACOSTE. Routledge,2004. Routledge Religion Online. Taylor & Francis.07 February 2014 http://routledgeonline.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/religion/Book.aspx?id=w102_w102b212&searchterm="Matthew%2027"&ticket=RmSa8MPVkcle4z1x0PHiIamEMzuRMQs37qjY2mycVBA=&mode=IP

-Brockett, Clyde W. "Scenarios of the 'descent into hell' in two processional antiphons." Comparative Drama 42.3 (2008): 301+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Feb. 2014. He attributes the source of his comments to Clifford Davidson out of Western Michigan University.

-Jackson, Mark Randall. "Atonement in Matthew's Gospel." Order No. 3454191, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2011. In PROQUESTMS ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text, http://search.proquest.com/docview/868502700?accountid=12085.  Page 204

-White, W. D. "THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO HELL: A STUDY IN OLD ENGLISH LITERATURE." Order No. 5906742, The University of Texas at Austin, 1959. In PROQUESTMS ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text, http://search.proquest.com/docview/301894731?accountid=12085.

-Bass, Justin W. "The Battle for the Keys: Revelation 1:18 and Christ's Descensus Ad Inferos." Order No. 3471018, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2011. In PROQUESTMS ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text, http://search.proquest.com/docview/885024097?accountid=12085.

-Bartle, Neville Robert. "Developing a Contextual Theology in Melanesia with Reference to Death, Witchcraft, and the Spirit World." Order No. 3013579, Asbury Theological Seminary, 2001. In PROQUESTMS ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text, http://search.proquest.com/docview/250191747?accountid=12085. p. 371

-Lange, Johann Peter,  The Gospel According to Matthew. )New York: C. Scribner, 1865) 528.

-Sadler, Gilbert T. b. 1871. The Inner Meaning of the Four Gospels: Reinterpreted In the Light of Modern Research, And In Relation to Spiritual And Social Needs. (London: C.W. Daniel, 1920) 99.
-James Morison, Commentary on the Gospel According to Matthew (London; Glasgow: Hamilton, Adams & Co.; Thomas D. Morison, 1870), 656.

- William Burt Pope, A Compendium of Christian Theology: Being Analytical Outlines of a Course of Theological Study, Biblical, Dogmatic, Historical, Volumes 1-3, vol. 3 (London: Beveridge and Co., 1879), 379–380.

-David Smith, The Gospel According to St. Matthew: With Introduction and Notes, ed. Alfred E. Garvie, The Westminster New Testament (London: Andrew Melrose, 1908), 244.

- John F. Walvoord, Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (Galaxie Software, 2007), 236.

- http://crossexamined.org/matthews-raised-saints/  (Frank Turek) (accessed 07/22/2014)

[1]By evangelical I mean what biblical scholars Sinclair B. Ferguson and J.I. Packer define as believing that the, “…Bible is the truthful revelation of God and through it the life-giving voice of God speaks; God is the almighty creator and we are his dependent creation; God has entered history redemptively in the incarnation of Jesus Christ; God’s nature exists in Trinitarian expression; Jesus Christ is fully divine and fully human, the power and judgment of sin is a reality for all humanity; God graciously takes the initiative in coming to us savingly in Jesus Christ and by the Holy Spirit; Jesus Christ is building his church; and the consummation of history will be expressed in the second advent of Jesus Christ, the general resurrection, the final judgment, heaven and hell.” Sinclair B. Ferguson and J.I. Packer, New Dictionary of Theology (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 239. This portion was written by I. S. Rennie; The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church says, “In a wider sense the term ‘Evangelical’ has been applied since the Reformation to the Protestant Churches by reason of their claim to base their teaching pre-eminently on the ‘Gospel.’ “F. L. Cross and Elizabeth A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 583; Theologian Harriet A. Harris identifies some a few of the core beliefs of evangelicals.  He maintaints that, “Evangelical theology reflects the sola scriptura principle of the Reformers, the rational orthodoxy of *Protestant Scholasticism and the experiential emphases of the revivals. Its main characteristics include: emphasizing the authority of Scripture over against reason, tradition and ecclesial authority; prioritizing the experience of becoming a Christian and knowing Jesus as one’s personal saviour, not over against right belief—the importance of which is taken very seriously—but over against the sacraments and ecclesial structures; stressing conversion, evangelism and missionary work, and the particularism of Christ’s saving work; and focusing on sanctification through holy living along with a corresponding rejection of Christ’s presence in the sacraments.” Harriet A. Harris, “Evangelical Theology,” ed. Trevor A. Hart, The Dictionary of Historical Theology (Carlisle, Cumbria, U.K.: Paternoster Press, 2000), 197–198.
[2]Editors probably do not bear the majority of the responsibility for a author's views.  However, they do at least bear some.
Note: I strived to get all the Evangelical's labeled correctly.  I am open to being reviewed on this. 

(updated 07/22/2014)

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